Google Chrome – Wikipedia – ABOUT MAG 2020

Web browser developed by Google

Google Chrome
Google Chrome icon (September 2014) .svg
Google Chrome on Windows 10 screenshot.png
Developer (s) Google LLC
initial release September 2, 2008; 11 years ago (9/2/2008)
Stable release (s) [±]
Windows, macOS, Linux 81.0.4044.92 / April 7, 2020; 6 days ago (2020-04-07)[1]
Android 81.0.4044.96 / April 7, 2020; 6 days ago (2020-04-07)[2]
iOS 81.0.4044.62 / April 7, 2020; 6 days ago (2020-04-07)[3]
View versions [±]
Beta (Windows, macOS, Linux) 81.0.4044.92 / April 2, 2020; 11 days ago (2020-04-02)[4]
Beta (Android) 81.0.4044.96 / April 6, 2020; 7 days ago (2020-04-06)[5]
Beta (iOS) 83.0.4103.7 / April 9, 2020; 2 days ago (2020-04-09)[6]
Dev (Windows, macOS, Linux) 83.0.4103.7 / April 8, 2020; 3 days ago (2020-04-08)[7]
Dev (Android) 83.0.4103.7 / April 8, 2020; 3 days ago (2020-04-08)[6]
Dev (iOS) 84.0.4106.0 / April 7, 2020; 6 days ago (2020-04-07)[6]
Canary (Windows, macOS) 84.0.4113.0 / April 13, 2020; 2 days ago (2020-04-13)[6]
Canary (Android) 84.0.4113.0 / April 13, 2020; 2 days ago (2020-04-13)[6]
Written in Ç, C ++, Java (Android app only), Javascript, Python[8][9][10]
Engines Blink (WebKit on iOS), V8
Operational system
Platform IA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARMv8-A
Included with
Available in 47 languages[13]
Type Web browser, mobile browser
License Owner freeware, based on open source components.[14][note 1]
Internet network location www.Google.with/ chrome/

Google Chrome it is a multiplataform web browser Developed by Google. It was first launched in 2008 to Microsoft Windowsand it was later ported for Linux, Mac OS, iOSand Android. The browser is also the main component of the Chrome OS, where it serves as a platform for web applications.

Most Chrome source code comes from Google open code Chromium project, but Chrome is licensed as the owner freeware.[14] WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked to create the Blink motor; all Chrome variants, except iOS, now use Blink.[15]

In April 2020, StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 68% worldwide browser market share (after reaching 72.36%) on traditional PCs and 64% on all platforms.[16][17] Because of this success, Google has expanded the “Chrome” brand to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromeboxand Chromebase.

Story

Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent browser for six years. He stated that “at the time Google was a small company” and did not want to experience “bruises browser wars“. After the co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a Chrome demo, Schmidt said that “it was so good it forced me to change my mind”.[18]

In September 2004, rumors emerged that Google built a web browser. Online magazines and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers, among others. It also came shortly after the final release of Mozilla Firefox 1.0, which was growing in popularity and gaining market share from Internet Explorer, who suffered from major security problems.[19] The development of the browser was led by Sundar Pichai.[20]

Advertisement

The launch announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008 and a comic book by Scott McCloud it should be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features of the new browser.[21] Copies destined for Europe were sent in advance and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped made a digitized copy of the 38-page comic book available on its website after receiving it on September 1, 2008.[22][23] Google subsequently made the comics available in Google Books,[24] and mentioned it on his official blog, along with an explanation for the early release.[25] The product was named “Chrome” as an initial development project code name, because it is associated with fast cars and speed. Google kept the name of the development project as the name of the final release, as a “sassy” or ironic nickname, as one of the main goals was to minimize the chrome user interface.[26][27]

Public release

An earlier version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium

The browser was launched publicly for the first time on September 2, 2008 to Windows XP and later, with 43 languages ​​supported, officially beta version,[28] and as a stable public release on December 11, 2008. On the same day, a CNET The news drew attention to a passage in the Terms of Service statement for the initial beta version, which appeared to grant Google a license for all content downloaded by the Chrome browser.[29] This ticket was inherited from Google’s general terms of service.[30] Google immediately responded to these criticisms by stating that the language used was borrowed from other products and removed that passage from the Terms of Service.[14]

Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share.[25][31][32] After the initial increase, usage share fell to a low of 0.69% in October 2008. Then it started to rise again, and in December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% limit.[33] In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google planned to release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year.[34] The first official developer previews of Chrome OS X and Linux were announced on June 4, 2009,[35] with a blog post saying many features were missing and intended for early comment, rather than general use.[36] In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux.[37][38] Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to support all three platforms.[39]

Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered on the BrowserChoice.eu for European Economic Area Microsoft Windows users in 2010.[40]

Development

Chrome was built from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties, such as MozillaIt’s Portable Netscape runtime, Network security services, NPAPI (discarded in version 45),[41] Skia Graphics Engine, SQLite, and several other open source projects.[42] The V8 Javascript virtual machine was considered a project important enough to be divided (as it was Adobe/MozillaIt’s Tamarin) and managed by a separate team in Denmark, coordinated by Lars Bak at the Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed “for small programs, where system performance and interactivity were not that important”, but Web applications such as Gmail “are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to SUN manipulations and Javascript“and therefore would benefit significantly from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.

Chrome initially used WebKit’s rendering engine to display web pages. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create your own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink uses only the “WebCore” components of WebKit, while replacing other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in place of the native implementation of WebKit.[15] Chrome is tested internally with unit test, automated scripting of user actions, fuzz test, as well as WebKit layout tests (99% of which Chrome is said to have passed) and against sites commonly accessed within the Google index in 20 to 30 minutes.[24] Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically related to building web applications, including offline support.[24] Google disabled Gears when the same functionality became available on HTML5 standards.[43]

On January 11, 2011, Chrome product manager Mike Jazayeri announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec support for the HTML5 player, citing the desire to align Google Chrome with the open codecs currently available in the Chromium project, on which Chrome is based.[44] Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows that added hardware accelerated H.264 video decoding.[45] In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was supplying its open source H.264 codecs and would cover all required fees.[46]

On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices.[47] On many new devices with Android 4.1 and later pre-installed, Chrome is the default browser.[48] In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.[49]

Version history

Resources

Google Chrome has a minimalist user interface, with its user interface principles later implemented in other browsers. For example, the merger of Address bar and search bar on omnibox.[50] Chrome also has a reputation for strong browser performance.[51][52]

Synchronization of bookmarks and settings

Chrome allows users to sync their bookmarks, history and settings across all devices with the installed browser by sending and receiving data through a chosen Google Account, which in turn updates all Chrome login instances. This can be authenticated using Google credentials or a sync password.

Web standards support

The results of the Acid3 test on Google Chrome 4.0

The first version of Google Chrome passed both Acid1 and Acid2 tests. As of version 4.0, Chrome has gone through all aspects of Acid3 test.[53]

In May 2011, Chrome has very good support for JavaScript /ECMAScript according Ecma International262 ECMAScript compliance test[54] (version ES5.1, May 18, 2012). This test reports as the final score the number of tests that a browser has failed; therefore, lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 got 10 failures / 11,578 approved. For comparison, Firefox 19 had 193 flaws / 11,752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 has more than 600 flaws, while Internet Explorer 10 has 7 flaws.

In 2011, in the official CSS 2.1 testing suite of the standardization organization W3C, WebKit, Chrome’s rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% of the 99.59% covered) in CSS 2.1 tests.[55]

In testing HTML5 web standards, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most popular desktop browsers.[56][57] Chrome 41 on Android gets 510 out of 555 points.[58][59][60] Chrome 44 has 526 points, just 29 points less than the maximum score.[61]

Safety

Chrome periodically retrieves updates from two blacklists (one to phishing and one for malware) and warns users when they try to visit a site flagged as potentially harmful. This service is also available for use by third parties through a free public service. API called “Google Safe Browsing API “.[24]

Chrome uses a process allocation model to sandbox separators.[62] Using the least privilege principle, each guiding process cannot interact with critical memory functions (for example, OS memory, user files) or other guiding processes – similar to Microsoft’s “Protected Mode” used by Internet Explorer 9 or better. The The Sandbox Team It is said that “it took this limit of the existing process and turned it into a jail“. This imposes a computer security model whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (of the user and sandbox) it’s the sandbox can only respond to communication requests initiated by the of the user.[63] On Linux, sandboxing uses the seccomp mode.[64][65]

In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the Internet using a VPN can be a serious security issue due to browser support for WebRTC.[66]

On September 9, 2016, it was reported that, starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit unsafe HTTP sites to encourage more sites to transition to HTTPS.[67]

On December 4, 2018, Google announced the launch of Chrome 71 with new security features, including an internal ad system. In addition, Google has also announced its plan to crack down on sites that make people unwittingly sign up for mobile subscription plans.[68]

Password management

windows

Since 2008, Chrome has been criticized for not including a master password to prevent casual access to a user’s passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real security against determined hackers and have refused to implement one. The errors recorded in this problem were marked as “WontFix”.[69][70] In February 2014, Google Chrome prompts the user to enter the Windows account password before showing the saved passwords.[71]

Linux

In Linux, Google Chrome / Chromium can store passwords in three ways:

Google Chrome / Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, based on desktop environment in use.[72]

Passwords stored in GNOME Keychain or KWallet are encrypted on the disk and access to them is controlled by a dedicated daemon software. Passwords stored in plain text are not encrypted. For this reason, when GNOME Keyring or KWallet is in use, all unencrypted passwords that were previously stored will be automatically moved to encrypted storage.

Support for using GNOME Keyring and KWallet was added in version 6, but their use (when available) was not done in standard mode until version 12.

Although Google Chrome / Chromium chooses which store to use automatically, the store to use can also be specified with a command line argument:

  • –password-store = gnome (to use GNOME Keyring)
  • –password-store = kwallet (to use KWallet)
  • –password-store = basic (to use plain text storage)
Mac OS

As of version 45, the Google Chrome password manager is no longer integrated with Locksmith, since interoperability goal is no longer possible.[73]

Security vulnerabilities

No security vulnerabilities in Chrome have been exploited in the three years since Pwn2Own from 2009 to 2011.[74]

At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French team that used zero-day explorations in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully corrected version 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a blocked website that overcame the Chrome sandbox.[75]

Chrome was compromised twice in CanSecWest 2012 Pwnium.[75][76][77] The official response from Google to the explorations was given by Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting “We also believe that the two submissions are works of art and deserve greater sharing and recognition”.[78] Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of submission.[79][80]

A significant number of security vulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the successful Pwn2Own attack on Chrome in 2016 featured four security vulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one in Chrome and one in the Windows kernel.[81] In 2016, Google announced that it planned to eliminate Flash Player in Chrome starting with version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for ads and “background analysis”, with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific sites that Google considered broken without it. Flash would be reactivated by deleting ads and analytics in the background, site by site.[82]

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 dated 2013–2016, details the features of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).[83][84]

Malware blocking and ad blocking

Google introduced download verification protection in Chrome 17.[85] In February 2018, Google introduced a ad blocking resource based on recommendations from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Sites that employ invasive ads receive a 30-day notice, after which their ads will be blocked.[86] Consumer Reports recommended users install dedicated ad blocking tools, which offer increased security against malware and tracking.[87]

Plugins

  • Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin application programming interface (NPAPI),[88] so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as separate, unrestricted processes outside the browser and cannot be placed in the restricted area like tabs. ActiveX is not supported.[88] Since 2010, Adobe Flash is part of Chrome and does not need to be installed separately. Flash is updated as part of Chrome’s own updates.[89] Java Applet support was available on Chrome with Java 6, update 12 and above.[90] Support for Java on OS X was provided by an update to Java released on May 18, 2010.[91]
  • On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure[92] called pepper plugin API (PPAPI).[93] The included standard PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was available at Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux version 20 of Chrome, on Windows version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%),[94] and finally came to OS X in version 23.[95]
  • On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would deprecate and remove support for NPAPI. Support for NPAPI has been removed from Linux in version 35 of Chrome.[96] NPAPI plug-ins like Java can no longer work on Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash using the PPAPI Flash Player on Linux, including Chromium).[97]
  • On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling NPAPI by default. This makes plug-ins that do not have a PPAPI plug-in equivalent incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, light gray and unity. However, NPAPI support can be enabled using the chrome: // flags[[[[permanent dead link] menu, until the release of version 45 in September 2015, which completely removed support for NPAPI.[98]

Privacy

Incognito mode

Google Chrome Incognito Message

The private browsing resource called Incognito The mode prevents the browser from permanently storing any story training, cookies, site data, or form entries.[99] The downloaded files and favorites will be stored. In addition, user activity is not hidden from the websites you visit or from your Internet service provider.

The incognito mode is similar to the private browsing feature in other web browsers. This does not prevent saving on all windows: “You can switch between an incognito window and any normal window you have opened. You will only be incognito when using the incognito window”.[100]

Listening resources

In June 2015, the Debian developer community found that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Shared hotword module, which could allow the Ok google speech recognition extension, although by default it was “disabled”. This raised privacy concerns in the media.[101][102] The module was removed on Chrome 45, released on September 1, 2015 and was present only on Chrome 43 and 44.[103][104]

Concerns about user tracking

Chrome sends details about your users and their activities to Google through optional and non-optional user tracking mechanisms.[105][106]

Some of the tracking mechanisms can be optionally enabled and disabled via the installation interface[107] and through the browser options dialog.[108] Unofficial constructions, such as SRWare Iron, try to remove these browser features completely.[109] The RLZ feature is also not included in the Chromium browser.[110]

In March 2010, Google created a new method for collecting installation statistics: the unique ID token included in Chrome is now used only for the first connection that Google Update makes to your server.[111]

The optional suggestion service included with Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the information entered in Omnibox to the search provider before the user returns. This allows the search engine to provide URL suggestions, but also to provide web usage information linked to a IP address.[112]

The optional feature to use a web service to help resolve spelling errors has privacy implications.[113]

Tracking methods
Method[109] Information sent When Optional? Choose to participate?
Installation Randomly generated token included in an installer; used to measure Google Chrome’s success rate once installed[114]

At installation

No N / A
RLZ identifier[115] Encoded the string, according to Google, contains non-identifying information from where Chrome was downloaded and its week of installation; it is used to measure promotional campaigns;[114] Google provides source code to decode this string[110]

It can be disabled in Chrome OS.[114] For Chrome browsers running on all other operating systems:[114]

  • Desktop versions of Chrome can prevent it by downloading the browser directly from Google.
  • Mobile versions of Chrome always send the RLZ identifier on the first launch.
  • In Google search query
  • First launch and first use of the address bar[114]
Partial
[note 2][114]
No
Customer ID[108] Unique identifier, along with user preferences, usage log metrics and failures Unknown yea[116] yea
Omnibox predictions[108] Text typed in Address bar When typing yea No
Page not found Text typed in the address bar Upon receiving the response “Server not found” yea No
Google update Information on how often Chrome is used, OS and Chrome version details Periodically Partial
[note 3][117]
No

Do not track

In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do not track (DNT) to inform websites that the user does not want to be tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. According to the draft of the W3 standard for DNT,[118] is disabled by default in Chrome.[119]

Speed

The Javascript virtual machine used by Chrome, the JavaScript V8 Engine, has features like dynamic code generation, hidden class transitionsand accurate garbage collection.[24]

In 2008, several sites conducted benchmark tests using the SunSpider JavaScript Reference tool, as well as Google’s own set of computationally intensive benchmarks, which include ray tracing and resolution of restrictions.[120] They unanimously reported that Chrome performed much faster than all the competitors it had been tested against, including Safari (for Windows), Firefox 3.0, Internet Explorer 7, Operaand Internet Explorer 8.[121][122][123][51][124][125] However, on October 11, 2010, independent tests of JavaScript performance, Chrome lagged behind only Opera’s Presto mechanism since it was updated in version 10.5.[126]

On September 3, 2008, Mozilla responded by stating that its own TraceMonkey The JavaScript engine (then in beta) was faster than Chrome’s V8 engine in some tests.[127][128][129] John Resig, Mozilla’s JavaScript evangelist, also commented on the performance of different browsers on Google’s own set, commenting on Chrome’s “decimation” of other browsers, but questioned whether the set of Google was representative of real programs. He stated that Firefox 3.0 performed poorly in recursion– intensive benchmarks, like those of Google, because the Mozilla team had not yet implemented recursion tracking.[130]

Two weeks after the launch of Chrome in 2008, the WebKit team announced a new JavaScript engine, SquirrelFish Extreme,[131] citing a 36% speed improvement over Chrome’s V8 engine.[132][133][134]

Like most major web browsers, Chrome uses DNS pre-search to speed up site searches,[135] just like other browsers like Firefox,[136] Safari,[137] Internet Explorer (called DNS pre-resolution),[138] is on Opera as a UserScript (not embedded).[139]

Chrome used to use its now discontinued SPDY protocol instead of just HTTP[140][141] when communicating with compatible servers, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY support has been removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to the replacement of SPDY by HTTP / 2, a standard that was based on it.

In November 2019, Google announced that it was working on several “quick flag” systems that tell visitors why a page is taking too long to appear. Variations include plain text warnings and more subtle signs that indicate that a site is slow. No date has been given for when the badge system will be included in the Chrome browser.[142]

Stability

Screenshot of a Chrome browser failure

A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome, where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each instance and plug-in of the website.[143] This procedure is called process isolation,[144] and prevents tasks from interfering with each other, increasing security and stability. An attacker who successfully gains access to an application gains access to none,[145] and failure in an instance results in a Sad Tab death screen, similar to the well-known Sad Mac, but only one tab crashes instead of the entire app. This strategy requires a fixed cost per process upfront, but results in less memory swelling over time, as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer requires additional memory allocations.[24] This architecture was adopted in Safari[146] and Firefox.[147]

Chrome includes a process management utility called Task Manager which allows users to see which sites and plug-ins are using the most memory, downloading most bytes and using too much CPU and provides the ability to complete them.[24] Chrome version 23 guarantees its users an improved battery life for systems that support Chrome GPU-accelerated video decoding.[148][45]

User interface

3D motif since its first public launch, September 2008 until March 2011

2D motif from March 2011 to October 2015

Material design reason used from September 2014 for mobile versions and October 2015 onwards for desktop versions

By default, the main user interface includes back, forward, update / cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not shown by default, but can be added via the Settings page to take the user to the new tab page or to a personalized home page.[149]

Guides are the main component of the Chrome user interface and have been moved to the top of the window and not below the controls. This subtle change contrasts with many browsers with existing tabs, based on windows and contains guides. The guides, with their status, can be transferred without interruption between the window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.[24]

The Omnibox it is a Caixa URL que combina as funções da barra de endereço e da caixa de pesquisa. Se um usuário digitar o URL de um site pesquisado anteriormente, o Chrome permitirá pressionar Aba para pesquisar no site novamente diretamente da Omnibox. Quando um usuário começa a digitar na Omnibox, o Chrome fornece sugestões para sites visitados anteriormente (com base no URL ou no texto da página), sites populares (não necessariamente visitados anteriormente – com tecnologia da Google Instant) e pesquisas populares. Embora o Instant possa ser desativado, as sugestões baseadas em sites visitados anteriormente não podem ser desativadas. O Chrome também autocompletar os URLs dos sites visitados com frequência.[24] Se um usuário digitar palavras-chave na Omnibox que não correspondem a sites visitados anteriormente e pressionar Enter, o Chrome realizará a pesquisa usando o mecanismo de pesquisa padrão.

Um dos recursos diferenciadores do Chrome é o Página Nova guia, que pode substituir o navegador pagina inicial e é exibido quando uma nova guia é criada. Originalmente, isso mostrava miniaturas dos nove sites mais visitados, além de pesquisas frequentes, favoritos recentes e guias fechadas recentemente; igual a Internet Explorer and fire Fox with Barra de ferramentas do Googleor Opera’s Discagem rápida.[24] No Google Chrome 2.0, a página Nova guia foi atualizada para permitir que os usuários ocultem miniaturas que eles não desejam que apareçam.[150]

A partir da versão 3.0, a página Nova guia foi renovada para exibir miniaturas dos oito sites mais visitados. As miniaturas podem ser reorganizadas, fixadas e removidas. Como alternativa, uma lista de links de texto pode ser exibida em vez de miniaturas. Ele também possui uma barra “Recentemente fechada” que mostra as guias fechadas recentemente e uma seção “Dicas” que exibe dicas e truques para usar o navegador.[151]

O Chrome inclui um favoritos submenu que lista os favoritos do usuário, fornece acesso fácil aos Gerenciador de favoritos, e permite ao usuário alternar um Barra de favoritos ligado ou desligado.

For desenvolvedores web, O Chrome possui um inspetor de elementos (Inspect Element), semelhante ao Firebug extensão do navegador, que permite aos usuários pesquisar no DOM e ver o que compõe a página da web.[135]

O Chrome possui URLs especiais que carregam páginas específicas do aplicativo em vez de sites ou arquivos no disco. O Chrome também possui uma capacidade interna de habilitar recursos experimentais. Originalmente chamado about:labs, o endereço foi alterado para about:flags para tornar menos óbvio para usuários casuais.[152][153]

Em março de 2011, o Google introduziu um novo logotipo simplificado para substituir o logotipo 3D anterior usado desde o início do projeto. O designer do Google, Steve Rura, explicou o raciocínio da empresa: “Como o Chrome tem tudo a ver com tornar a sua experiência na Web o mais fácil e sem desordem possível, atualizamos o ícone do Chrome para representar melhor esses sentimentos. Um ícone mais simples incorpora o espírito do Chrome – para tornar a web mais rápida, mais leve e mais fácil para todos “.[154]

Em setembro de 2013, o Google começou a criar aplicativos Chrome “Para sua área de trabalho”. Isso significava acesso offline, atalhos da área de trabalho e menos dependência do Chrome – os aplicativos são iniciados em uma janela separada do Chrome e parecem mais com aplicativos nativos.[155]

Em 2 de janeiro de 2019, o Google introduziu o Native Dark Theme para Chrome no Windows 10.[156]

Atalhos e aplicativos da área de trabalho

Chrome permite que os usuários façam desktop local atalhos que aberto Aplicativos da web no navegador. O navegador, quando aberto dessa maneira, não contém nenhuma interface comum, exceto a barra de título, para não “interromper nada que o usuário esteja tentando fazer”. Isso permite que os aplicativos da Web sejam executados juntamente com o software local (semelhante ao Mozilla Prism and Fluido)[24]

This feature, according to Google, would be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web applications directory which opened in December 2010.[157][158]

Chrome Web Store

Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store allows users to install web applications as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to popular web pages and/or games, some of the apps like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the new store, allowing users to search the entire catalog of Chrome extras.[159]

The Chrome Web Store was opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.[160]

Extensions

Google Chrome Extensions are browser extensions that modify Google Chrome.[161] These extensions are written using web technologies like HTML, JavaScriptand CSS.[162] They are distributed through Chrome Web Store,[163] initially known as the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery.[161] All users with a Google Account are able to add extensions after developing them.[164] Many Chrome extensions, once installed, have access to the user’s data. There are three levels of permissions that an app or extension may request.[165] All extensions must have a clear and singular purpose.[166]

On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome’s developer channel, and provided several sample extensions for testing.[167] In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions.[38][168] It was launched on January 25, 2010 along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.[169]

In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store.[170][171] The following year Google reported a “75% drop in customer support help requests for uninstalling unwanted extensions” which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users.[172] Under the terms of the EULA, Google can remove or disable any extensions from a user’s installation of Chrome.[14]

Notable examples

Themes

Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users can install themes to alter the appearance of the browser.[176] Many free third-party themes are provided in an online gallery,[177] accessible through a “Get themes” button in Chrome’s options.[178]

Automatic web page translation

Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the application added a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Translation is currently available for 52 languages.[179] When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the user’s preferred language as set during the installation time, it asks the user whether or not to translate.

Release channels, cycles and updates

The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta test period and the beginning of production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the “Dev” channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome’s Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.

Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed “thorough” testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with “stable and complete” features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed “(and sometimes fail) and can be very unstable at times”. [Quoted remarks from Google’s policy announcements.][180][181][182]

Google Chrome Canary Application Icon

On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases new stable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates.[183] Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for basic release-critical testing.[184] This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the “Canary” channel, updated daily from a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions.[185] The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change “kills” Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build.[186] Canary is “the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds”. Canary releases run side by side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and can therefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary update may contain release-breaking bugs.[187] It does not natively include the option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it can be set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; The OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.[188]

The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side by side with the stable channel for Android.[189][190] Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.[191]

All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it uses Google Update, and auto-update can be controlled via Group Policy.[192] Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update.[193][194] On OS X, it uses Google Update Service, and auto-update can be controlled via the OS X “defaults” system.[195] On Linux, it lets the system’s normal package management system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-release development trunk for Chrome, its revisions are provided as source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.[196]

Release version numbers

Releases are identified by a four-part version number, e.g. 42.0.2311.90 (Windows Stable release April 14, 2015[197]) The components are major.minor.build.patch.[198][199]

Major.minor reflects scheduling policy
Build.patch identifies content progression
  • Major represents a product release. These are scheduled 7–8 per year, unlike other software systems where the major version number updates only with substantial new content.
  • Minor is usually 0. References to version ‘x’ or ‘x.0’, e.g. 42.0, refer to this major.minor designation.
  • Build is ever increasing. For a release cycle, e.g. 42.0, there are several builds in the Canary and Developer period. O último build number from Developer is kept throughout Beta and Stable and is locked with the major.minor for that release.
  • Patch resets with each build, incrementing with each patch. The first patch is 0, but usually the first publicly released patch is somewhat higher. In Beta and Stable, only patch increments.

Chromium and Chrome release schedules are linked through Chromium
(Major) version Branch Point dates, published annually.[198] The Branch Points precede the final Chrome Developer build (initial) release by 4 days (nearly always) and the Chrome Stable initial release by roughly 53 days.[200]

Example: The version 42 Branch Point was February 20, 2015.[198] Developer builds stopped advancing at build 2311 with release 42.0.2311.4 on February 24,[201] 4 days later. The first Stable release, 42.0.2311.90, was April 14, 2015,[197] 53 days after the Branch Point.

Color management

Chrome supports color management by using the system-provided ICC v2 and v4 support on Mac OS, and from version 22 supports ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.[202]

T-Rex

In Chrome, when not connected to the Internet and an error message displaying “No internet” is shown, on the top, an “8-bitTyrannosaurus rex is shown, but when pressing the space bar on a keyboard, mouse-clicking on it or tapping it on touch devices, the T-Rex instantly jumps once and dashes across a cactus-ridden desert, revealing it to be an Easter egg in the form of a platform game.[203][204][205][206] The game itself is an infinite runner, and there is no time limit in the game as it progresses faster and periodically tints to a black background. A school Chromebook administrator can disable the game.[207]

Platforms

The current version of Chrome runs on:

As of April 2016, stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are available for Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds available for Linux and Mac OS.[209][210][211] 64-bit Windows builds became available in the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014,[212] in the beta channel on July 30, 2014,[213] and in the stable channel on August 26, 2014.[214] 64-bit OS X builds became available as canary builds on November 7, 2013,[215][216] in the beta channel on October 9, 2014,[217] and in the stable channel on November 18, 2014.[209]

Compatibilidade

Operating system Latest version Support status
janelas 7 and later 80 2009–
XP and Vista 49. 2008–2016
Mac OS 10.10 and later 81 2014–
10.9 65 2013–2018
10.610.8 (x64) 49. 2010–2016
10.6 (IA-32) 38. 2010–2014
10.5 (IA-32,x64) 21 2010–2012
Linux desktop x64 80 2010–
IA-32 48 2010–2016
Android 4.4 and later 80 2013–
4.1-4.3 (ARMv7,IA-32,x64) 71[218] 2012–2019
4.0 (ARMv7,IA-32) 42. 2012–2015
iOS 12.0 and later 80 2018–
11.x 76 2017–2019
10.x 72 2016–2019
9.x , 8.x 63 2014–2018
7.x 54 2013–2016
6.x 42. 2012–2015
5.x 30 (For at least 512 MB of RAM)
23 (For 256 MB of RAM)
2012–2013
4.x 23 2012

Android

A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, available for a limited number of countries from Google Play.[219]

Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs,[220] page pre-rendering,[221] hardware acceleration.[222]

Many of the latest HTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform’s features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, strong HTML5 video support, and new capabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, Application Cache and the File APIs, date- and time-pickers, parts of the Media Capture API.[221][223] Also supports mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.[223]

Mobile customizations: swipe gesture tab switching,[220] link preview allows zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked,[220] font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.[223]

Features missing in the mobile version include sandboxed tabs,[221][224] Safe Browsing,[221] apps or extensions,[222] Adobe Flash (now and in the future),[222] Native Client.[222]

Development changes: remote debugging,[221][225] part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings.[223] The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most new and modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.[223]

The April 17, 2012 update included availability in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a website can also be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users can now add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they choose and decide which apps should handle links opened in Chrome.[226]

On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.[227]

Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to support mobile devices based on Intel x86.[228]

Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually new stable releases are available at the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25.[189] As of 2013 a separate beta version of Chrome is available in the Google Play Store – it can run side by side with the stable release.[229]

Chrome OS

Google Chrome is the basis of Google’s Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google’s manufacturing partners.[230] The user interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only applications on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.[231][232][233][234][235]

Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.[236]

iOS

Chrome is available on maçã‘s mobile iOS operating system as Google Chrome for iOS. Released in the Apple App Store on June 26, 2012, it supports the iPad, iPhoneand iPod touch, and the current version requires that the device has iOS 12.0 or greater installed.[237] In accordance with Apple’s requirements for browsers released through their App Store, this version of Chrome uses the iOS WebKit – which is Apple’s own mobile rendering engine and components, developed for their Safari browser – therefore it is restricted from using Google’s own V8 JavaScript engine.[238][239] Chrome is the default web browser for the iOS Gmail application, but it cannot be used as the device-wide default application for opening webpages because Apple has not provided iOS users with the option to change the default from Safari.[240]

In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market as of July 18, 2012.[241] In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.[242]

Linux

On Linux distributions, support for 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016 although Chromium is still supported.[243] As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6’s 2.20, and RHEL 6’s 2.18.[244]

janelas

Support for Google Chrome on Windows XP and Windows Vista ended in April 2016.[245] The last release of Google Chrome that can be run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112,[246] released on April 7, 2016,[247] then re-released on April 11, 2016.[248]

Support for Google Chrome in Windows 7 will end on at least July 15, 2021.[249]

“Windows 8 mode” was introduced in 2012 and has since been discontinued. It was provided to the developer channel, which enabled Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users to run Chrome with a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface, with access to snapping, sharing, and search functionalities.[250] In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on the developer channel changed to use a desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web apps.[251] This was removed on version 49 and users that have upgraded to Windows 10 will lose this feature.[252]

Mac OS

Google dropped support for Mac OS X 10.5 with the release of Chrome 22.[253] Support for 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in October 2014 with the release of Chrome 39.[254][255][209] Support for Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7and 10.8 ended in April 2016 with the release of Chrome 50. Support for OS X 10.9 ended in April 2018 with the release of Chrome 66.[[[[citation needed]

Reception

Google Chrome was met with acclaim upon release. In 2008, Matthew Moore of The Daily Telegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: “Google Chrome is attractive, fast and has some impressive new features…”[256]

Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that “Chrome will strengthen the Web as the biggest application platform in the world”.[257] But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that “For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous programs for accessing content on the Web. Credit for this trend – a boon to consumers – goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose big plans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the software giant to pay fresh attention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it’s back in gear.”[258] Mozilla said that Chrome’s introduction into the web browser market comes as “no real surprise”, that “Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox”, and furthermore that it would not affect Google’s revenue relationship with Mozilla.[259][260]

Chrome’s design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called “cloud computing.” At the touch of a button, Chrome lets you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web page or Web application, blurring the line between what’s online and what’s inside your PC. For example, I created a desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop application than like a Web application or page.

With its dominance in the web browser market, Google has been accused of using Chrome and Blink development to push new web standards that are proposed in-house by Google and subsequently implemented by its services first and foremost. These have led to performance disadvantages and compatibility issues with competing browsers, and in some cases, developers intentionally refusing to test their websites on any other browser than Chrome.[262] Tom Warren of The Verge went as far as comparing Chrome to Internet Explorer 6, the default browser of Windows XP that was often targeted by competitors due to its similar ubiquity in the early 2000s.[263]

In 2019, Google similarly faced criticism over planned changes to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed “Manifest V3”), which would inhibit the effectiveness of certain forms of ad blocking software by preventing the use of the WebRequest API to block and modify network connections. Google intends extensions to transition to another API known as DeclarativeWebRequest, which allows the extension to set up pre-configured rules that are processed by the browser itself rather than through the extension. However, concerns over how well the API would perform, in combination with concerns over a cap on the number of entries that may be blacklisted, led to criticism that these changes were designed to inhibit ad blocking (citing Google’s vested interest in the online advertising industry). Google cited performance issues associated with WebRequest, as it requires all network traffic to go through the extension before the page is loaded, as well as its use in malicious extensions, as justification for these changes. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to help quell concerns.[264][265][266]

Usage

Market share

The most used web browser per country in 2019[268]

Chrome overtook fire Fox in November 2011, in worldwide usage. As of June 2016, according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 62% worldwide desktop usage share, making it the most widely used web browser, while Firefox had 16% and Internet Explorer had 12%.[269][270]

Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome receives a weekend “bump”, which boosts its market share by as much as three percentage points on weekends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.[271]

It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most used web browser in the world for the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.[272]

From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most used web browser in the world.[273] According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for a single day’s usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.[274]

At the 2012 Google I/O developers’ conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.[275]

In June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.[276]

In August 2013, Chrome was used by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, 36% of people use Chrome, the lowest in the world.[277]

As of February 2018, Chrome is the most used browser in virtually all countries, with most exceptions in Africa.[279]

Enterprise deployment

In December 2010, Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to use Chrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business use it is helpful to have full-fledged MSI packages that can be customized via transform files (.mst) – but the MSI provided with Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses find that this arrangement does not meet their needs.[280] The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the user’s local app data directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI package will allow installation at the system level, providing system administrators control over the update process[281] – it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policy objects to fine-tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example by setting automatic updates interval, disabling auto-updates, and configuring a home page.[282] Until version 24 the software is known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.[283]

Chromium

In September 2008, Google released a large portion of Chrome’s source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to help port the browser to the Mac OS and Linux operational systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license.[284] Other portions of the source code are subject to a variety of open-source licenses.[285] Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and a built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo.[286][287] Chromium does not implement user RLZ tracking.[110][105][288] Initially, the Google Chrome PDF viewer, PDFium, was excluded from Chromium, but was later made open-source in May 2014.[289][290] PDFium can be used to fill PDF forms.[291]

Developing for Chrome

It is possible to develop applications, extensions, and themes for Chrome. They are zipped in a .crx file and contain a manifest file that specifies basic information (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for the user interface (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer’s guide.[292] Chrome has its own web store where users and developers can upload and download these applications and extensions.[293]

Veja também

Notas

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External links

160 ms 9.5%
    Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::callParserFunction 140 ms 8.3%
    dataWrapper 140 ms 8.3%
    Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::find 120 ms 7.1%
    Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::match 100 ms 6.0%
    Scribunto_LuaSandboxCallback::getExpandedArgument 100 ms 6.0%
    select_one 80 ms 4.8%
    date 60 ms 3.6%
    citation0 60 ms 3.6%
[others] 480 ms 28.6%
->

Paula Fonseca