World Wide Web – Wikipedia – ABOUT MAG 2020

Graphical representation of some web presence on the World Wide Web at in July 2004

Visualization of the common tracking of the World Wide Web from 2012 (44 million domains)

What World Wide Web [[[[ˌWɜːldˌwaɪdˈwɛb](Audio file / audio sample listen?/me) (English for “worldwide network”, in short Web, WWW, rare and especially in the early days and in the USA too W3) is about that Internet recoverable system electronic HypertextDocuments, the so-called Websitesthan with HTML be described. You finished Hyperlinks connected to each other and are on the Internet Logs HTTP or HTTPS transferred. The websites contain mainly text, usually with figures and graphic elements illustrated. They are also common videos, Sound documents or built-in music pieces.

Becomes colloquial World Wide Web often with that Internet equated,[1] however, it is younger and represents only one of several possible uses of the Internet. Internet services as Email, IRC or SSH not in it World Wide Web integrated.

To access the content of the World Wide Web will be a Web browser necessary, the z. B. in one PRAÇA or one Smartphone running. With it, the user can use it on anyone he chooses Web server Download the data provided and onto a suitable output device, such as a screen or Braille display exhibition. The user can then Hyperlinks Follow on the web page that appears on other people Websites see, regardless of whether they are stored on the same web server or on a different server. This creates a worldwide network of websites. Tracking hyperlinks is also called “Surf the internet“Designated.

With the call Web 2.0 The sites became popular around the 2000s, the content of which the user can not only passively display, as on news sites, but also change and add to them, for example. B. publish your own content or communicate with other users. These include Blogs like private opinion pages, pages created by a free community of authors after the Wiki Principle and Social networks as Forums. Server-side techniques and (scripting) languages ​​that implement this interactivity are above all CGI, Python, ASP, Apache wicket, JSF, ColdFusion, Ruby, PHP and SSI. For client-side techniques that, for example, B. individualize content using filters include, among others CSS, Javascript or Java, where Java is used primarily for platform-neutral execution of programs that are usually loaded as Web applications over the Internet and with Internet-based databases (e.g., SAPCustomers) communicate. With interactivity, the use of Search Engines possible that previously available Web Directories added and so far largely suppressed.

With the increasing complexity of formats, protocols and techniques, new work profiles have emerged, such as B. Web designer and Mediamatician. In addition to programming the content, its tasks also include assessing user behavior within the framework of the Log file analysis.

The WWW was developed in 1989, developing similar concepts known Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau at the European research center CERN in Geneva developed.[2][3] Berners-Lee developed this HTTPNetwork protocol and the Markup language HTML. He also programmed the first web browser and the first web server software. He also operated the world’s first web server on his type development computer NeXTcube. The general concept was made public in 1991 without any Patenting or License payments for free disposal provided, which contributed significantly to today’s meaning.

The world’s first website was released on August 6, 1991.[4] A replica of this page can be accessed through the following link:

The WWW led to major upheavals, often described as revolutionary, in many areas of life, the emergence of new economic sectors and a fundamental change in the Communication behavior it’s the Media usage. It is of cultural importance, along with other Internet services, such as Email, in part with the invention of Typography equated.

DevelopmentTo edit

Tim Berners-Lee’s first web server

The web was created in 1989 as a project at the research center CERNclose Geneva located on Swiss and French territory in which Tim Berners-Lee built a hypertext system.[5]

He first presented the idea on March 12, 1989 at the research center.[6] The concept was developed by the Belgian Robert Cailliau designed with. The original purpose of the system was to exchange research results with colleagues in a simple way. One method of doing this was to “intertwine” scientific articles – that is, to create a web. In Berners-Lee’s own words:

“WorldWideWeb (W3) is an initiative for retrieving information in wide area hypermedia, with the aim of providing universal access to a large universe of documents”.

“The World Wide Web is on a large scale Hypermedia– Information gathering initiative that aims to give general access to a large collection of documents “.

Tim Berners-Lee

That the Hypertext underlying concept stems from previous developments, such as Ted Nelsons Xanadu Project,[7] Vannevar Bushsmemex“Machine idea and what Note ID Project.

What World Wide Web differs from the hypertext systems of the time (Note Code used a simple and readable syntax and semantic Descriptors). The WWW only needs unidirectional Left bidirectional, which makes it possible to link a resource without the owner having to intervene. It also builds World Wide Web – unlike other protocols like HyperCard or Gopher – for free Protocol about what made the development of servers and clients possible without license restrictions. Tim Berners-Lee did it World Wide WebProject on August 6, 1991 with a contribution to Newsgroup alt.hypertext publicly available and worldwide.[8]

Berners-Lee simply called the first ad program on the web, which was more of a browser editor hybrid, “WorldWideWeb“He had it at one in the fall of 1990 NeXT-Computer written. He later named him – to be confused with the World Wide Web to avoid (with spaces) – in “Nexus” hum. At that time, it could only display text, but later browsers like Pei Weis Viola (1992) added the ability to display graphics. Marc Andreessen in NCSA launched a browser in 1993 called “Mosaic for X“, Which soon gave the web and the internet unprecedented popularity, in addition to previous user groups and explosive growth. Marc Andreessen founded the company “Mosaic Communications Corporation”, later “Netscape Communication“Now, modern browsers can also display additional features, such as dynamic content, music, animations and videos.[9] On April 30, 1993, the board of directors of the European nuclear research center CERN World Wide Web free for Public free.[10]

NameTo edit

In the first draft of the Berners-Lee project, in March 1989, the web was still called Mesh (English Braid)[11] The name was quickly dropped because it was too Mess (English Disorder) remembers. The following naming attempts Information mine (English Information mine) or The Information Mine did not exist because the abbreviations MOI (French me) and TIM seemed very self-centered. In addition, a mine was only a partially adequate image, because you can only get something out of it, but the web must provide information and be filled with it.

Finally Berners-Lee lay down Web and World Wide Web firmly, although he was warned by colleagues that the English and French language twist acronym WWW compromise the success of the project. Web seemed particularly suitable as an image, since in mathematics there was a network of nodes (English We), each of which can be connected to each other.[12]

The WWW is based on three main standards:[13]

Following Standards came later:

What Consortium on the World Wide Web (W3C), led by Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the WWW, and others are developing HTML and CSS standards; other patterns come from Internet Engineering Task Force, The ECMA and manufacturers like Sun Microsystems. Not of W3 Consortium is standardized Javascript, the most widely used scripting or macro language in web browsers.

Javascript it is a Scripting language with instructions for Browserwith which small programs (scripts) can be incorporated. This allows websites to Document Object Models (DOM) can be changed dynamically. Scripts are generally small programs, but they can also be used as Client Manager take full control of the screen with the help of the DOM. One of Microsoft developed variant of JavaScript is called JScript. Both languages ​​are similar, but not compatible with each other. This incompatibility was a crucial part of the so-called Browser war.

The WWW was and is being complemented by other techniques. The images were used early for illustration; the formats were used GIF for graphics and animations and JPEG for photos. Later, GIF became more and more PNG because – unlike GIF – there were no license fees for their use.

In addition, browsers were able to add several other file types through so-called browser extensions Plug-insThey are shown. This allowed Multimedia content from animations to music and videos or all applications such as insurance calculators or navigation interfaces. For example, enabled Java Applets incorporate programs run locally on the WWW user’s computer and Flash was used for interactive content or animation.

With the introduction of HTML5 and other standardized techniques Plug-ins quickly moved from the market because animation and multimedia content or similar functions were now created directly in the browser and therefore could be implemented without external dependencies. For security and stability reasons, most larger browsers generally disable large parts or the whole NPAPIInterface for that Plug-ins was used. However, formats like PDF to display documents, which can now also be viewed primarily using PDF readers installed in the browser.

Dynamic sites and web appsTo edit

With the help of dynamic WWW pages, the WWW can serve as an interface for programs executed remotely: a program is no longer started conventionally locally on the computer, but is viewed and operated by a web browser. The advantage here is that programs are no longer distributed on individual computers and must be administered there (decentrally).

Dynamic web applications run on the web server or directly in the browser.

  • Running web applications on the web server: Content is shown in scripting languages ​​(such as PHP or Perl) or compiled applications (such as JSP, Servlets or ASP.NET) written web applications generated and delivered to the browser.
  • Dynamic client sites: the browser creates or changes content using JavaScript.
  • Mixed execution: a mixed execution represents Ajax give – here the browser sends a request via JavaScript, which is processed by the web server and thus dynamically renews parts of the HTML structure.

The disadvantages are the limited possibilities for printing WWW pages, so programs in the form of web pages generally cannot be operated as easily as conventional programs. A trend that tries to reconcile the two is Advanced Internet applications.

At the moment, it can be seen that more and more services, originally separated from the WWW and executed as a separate program, are offered via WWW and can be used with a browser:

Then go Webmail often how Email client or WebFTP as FTP-Customer used; Web Forums replace that Usenet and webchats The IRC.

Compatibility and accessibilityTo edit

Browser manufacturers often introduced new possibilities without waiting for standardization. On the other hand, not all parts of the standards, such as HTML or CSS, are still implemented correctly. This leads to incompatibilities between certain websites and some browsers. At the beginning of the Internet boom, the company was particularly “overcome” by these incompatibilities Netscapetoday especially the company Microsoft With your Internet Explorer.

It also passed through the crowd of ad hocHTML extensions are a big benefit of this Language lost – separation of content and presentation. This separation allows the content marked in HTML to be ideally prepared for the respective output device. The variety of supportable output devices varies from high resolution Screen one Desktop Computers, the small screen of a low-performance cell phone, in black and white E-book reader with less Frame rate up to the voice output using Screen reader and control through Braille display for visually impaired users.

What W3C and other initiatives are therefore driving the trend towards standardization and standardization among web browsers. HTML/XHTML and CSS to regain these HTML benefits. Also the growing resignation Plug-ins, like Flash, support this trend and resulted in better Accessibility. XHTML was later used in favor of HTML5 abandoned, which also incorporated explicit features to improve machine accessibility and legibility that are not visually visible.

  1. Internet and World Wide Web – the difference., October 29, 2009, accessed on December 11, 2010.
  2. WWW proposal
  3. 25 years WWW: how three letters changed the world in Spiegel Online August 5, 2016
  4. Tilman tree harness: Happy birthday, WWW! Even a huge network sometimes starts with a single node. The first website went online 25 years ago. In: August 5, 2016, accessed on August 6, 2016.
  5. Proposal In:
  6. Patrick Beuth, Eike Kühl: 25 years of the World Wide Web. But you grew up! Time onlineMarch 2, 2014. Recovered on January 15, 2017.
  7. 25 years ago: the WWW appears on Usenet. In: heise online. Retrieved on August 6, 2016.
  8. Tim Berners-Lee: WorldWideWeb – Executive Summary. In: August 6, 1991.
  9. Detlef Borchers: 20 years ago: a difficult proposal to convey – and the beginning of the web. heise online, March 13, 2009, accessed on July 23, 2010..
  10. Alexandra Budke / Detlef Kanwischer / Andreas Pott, Geography of the Internet, 2004, p.9
  11. Tim Berners-Lee: Information management: a proposal. CERN / W3C, March 1989, accessed on August 1, 2010 (In English, see “Mesh” in the illustration).
  12. Berners-Lee, Fischetti, 2000, p.
  13. Dave Raggett, Arnaud Le Hors and Ian Jacobs: Introduction to HTML 4. What is the World Wide Web? In: HTML 4.01 specification. World Wide Web Consortium, December 24, 1999, accessed on February 16, 2019 (English)

Paula Fonseca