World Wide Web – Wikipedia – ABOUT MAG 2020

System of linked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet

A web page can be viewed using a web browser. Web browsers often highlight and underline hypertext links, and web pages can contain images.

A global map of web index for countries in 2014

The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the web, it is a Information system where documents and others web resources are identified by Uniform resource locators (URLs, such as https://www.example.com/), which can be interconnected by hypertextand are accessible through the Internet.[1][2] WWW resources are transferred through the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) and can be accessed by users through a software application called web browser and are published by a software application called web server.

English scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web in 1989. He wrote the first web browser in 1990 while working on CERN near Geneva, Switzerland.[3][4] The browser was launched outside CERN in 1991, first for other research institutions in January 1991 and later for the general public in August 1991. The World Wide Web has been central to the development of the Information age and it is the main tool that billions of people use to interact on the Internet.[5][6][7][8][9]

Web resources can be any type of downloaded media, but web pages are hypertext media that were formatted at the Hypertext markup language (HTML).[10] This formatting allows you to incorporate hyperlinks which contain URLs and allow users to to browse for other web resources. Besides text, web pages may contain references to images, video, audioand software components that are displayed on the Commercial browser as coherent pages of multimedia content.

Various web resources with a common theme, a common theme domain name, or both, form a Internet network location. The websites are stored on computers running a program called web server which responds to requests made over the Internet from web browsers running on the user’s computer. The content of the website can be widely provided by an editor or interactively where users contribute content or the content depends on the users or their actions. The websites can be provided for a multitude of informational, entertainment, commercial, governmental or non-governmental reasons.

Story[[[[To edit]

The corridor where WWW was born. CERN, ground floor of building No.1

Tim Berners-LeeThe vision of a global hyperlinked information system became a possibility in the second half of the 1980s.[11] In 1985, the Global Internet began to proliferate in Europe and the Domain Name System (on which the standard resource locator is built) emerged. In 1988, the first direct IP connection between Europe and North America was established and Berners-Lee began to openly discuss the possibility of a web-like system at CERN.[12]

While working at CERN, Berners-Lee was frustrated by the inefficiencies and difficulties encountered in finding information stored on different computers.[13] On March 12, 1989, he sent a memo entitled “Information management: a proposal”,[14] to CERN management for a system called “Mesh” that referred to INVESTIGATE, a database and software project he had built in 1980, which used the term “web” and described a more elaborate information management system based on links embedded as text: “Imagine, then, the references in this document all associated with Network address of the thing they were referring to, so that, when reading this document, you could jump to them with a click of the mouse. “This system, he explained, could be referred to using one of the existing meanings of the word hypertext, a term he says was coined in the 1950s. There is no reason, the proposal continues, why these hypertext links could not cover multimedia documents, including graphics, speech and video, for Berners-Lee to continue using the term hypermedia.[15]

With the help of his colleague and fellow hypertext enthusiast Robert Cailliau he published a more formal proposal on November 12, 1990 to build a “hypertext project” called “WorldWideWeb” (a word) as a “network” of “hypertext documents” to be viewed by “browsers“using a client-server architecture.[16] At this point, HTML and HTTP it had been in development for about two months now, and the first web server took about a month to complete its first successful test. This proposal estimated that a read-only web would be developed in three months and would take six months to achieve “the creation of new links and new material by readers, [so that] authorship becomes universal “as well as” automatic notification to a reader when new material of interest becomes available. “While the read-only objective was achieved, accessible authorship of web content took longer to mature, with wiki concept, WebDAV, blogs, Web 2.0 and RSS/Atom.[17]

The proposal was modeled after the SGML reader Dynatext by Electronic Book Technology, a derivation of Information and Scholarship Research Institute at Brown University. The Dynatext system, licensed by CERN, was an important participant in the extension of SGML ISO 8879: 1986 for Hypermedia within HyTime, but it was considered too expensive and had an inappropriate licensing policy for use in the general high-energy physics community, that is, a fee for each document and each document change.[[[[necessary citation] AN NeXT computer was used by Berners-Lee as the world’s first web server and also to write the first web browser in 1990. By Christmas 1990, Berners-Lee had built all the tools necessary for a functioning Web:[18] the first web browser (World Wide Web, which was a web editor too) and the first web server. The first site,[19] which described the project itself, was published on December 20, 1990.[20]

The first web page may be lost, but Paul Jones of UNC-Chapel Hill in North Carolina, announced in May 2013 that Berners-Lee gave him what he says is the oldest known web page during a visit to UNC in 1991. Jones stored it in a magneto-optical unit and on your NeXT computer.[21] On August 6, 1991, Berners-Lee published a brief summary of the World Wide Web project on the website newsgroup alt.hypertext.[22] This date is sometimes confused with the public availability of the first Web servers, which occurred months earlier. As another example of this confusion, several media reported that the first photo on the Web was published by Berners-Lee in 1992, an image of the CERN band. Les Horribles Cernettes taken by Silvano de Gennaro; Gennaro rejected this story, writing that the media was “totally distorting our words in favor of cheap sensationalism”.[23]

The first server outside Europe was installed in December 1991 on Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in Palo Alto, California, to host the SPIERS-HEP.[24][25][26][27] The underlying concept of hypertext originated in previous projects from the 1960s, such as the Hypertext Editing System (HES) at Brown University, Ted NelsonIt’s Xanadu Projectand Douglas EngelbartIt’s Online system (NLS). Nelson and Engelbart, for their part, were inspired by Vannevar BushIt’s microfilm-Based memex, which was described in the 1945 essay “How We Can Think[28]

Berners-Lee’s breakthrough was hypertext marriage to the Internet. In your book Weaving the Web, he explains that he had repeatedly suggested to members of the both technical communities that a marriage between the two technologies was possible. But when no one accepted the invitation, he finally took over the project. In the process, he developed three essential technologies:

The World Wide Web had several differences from other hypertext systems available at the time. The Web required only unidirectional links instead of bidirectional links, allowing someone to link to another resource without the action of that resource’s owner. It also significantly reduced the difficulty of implementing web servers and browsers (compared to previous systems), but in turn, presented the chronic problem of link rot. Unlike predecessors like HyperCard, the World Wide Web was not proprietary, allowing the development of servers and clients independently and the addition of extensions without licensing restrictions. On April 30, 1993, CERN announced that the Internet would be free for anyone, without fees.[30] Two months after the announcement that the server implementation of Gopher Since the protocol was no longer free, this produced a rapid change for Gopher and the web. A popular initial web browser was ViolaWWW for Unix and the X Window System.

Historians generally agree that a turning point for the Web began with the 1993 introduction of the mosaic,[31][32] a graphics browser developed at National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (NCSA-UIUC). The development was led by Marc Andreessen, while funding came from the US High Performance Computing and Communication Initiative and the High Performance Computing Act 1991, one of several computational developments initiated by US senator Al Gore.[33] Before the release of Mosaic, graphics were not commonly mixed with text on web pages, and the web was less popular than older protocols, such as Gopher and Wide area information servers (WAIS). Mosaic’s graphical user interface has enabled the Web to become by far the most popular protocol on the Internet. The Consortium on the World Wide Web (W3C) was founded by Tim Berners-Lee after leaving the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in October 1994. It was founded at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Computer Science Laboratory (MIT / LCS), with support from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), a pioneer on the Internet; a year later, a second site was founded in INRIA (a French national computer research laboratory) with support from the European Commission DG InfSo; and in 1996, a third continental location was created in Japan in Keio University. At the end of 1994, the total number of sites was still relatively small, but many notable sites they were already active that foreshadowed or inspired today’s most popular services.

Connected via the Internet, other sites have been created around the world. This motivated the development of international standards for protocols and formatting. Berners-Lee remained involved in guiding the development of web standards, such as the markup languages to compose web pages and he defended his vision of a Semantic Web. The World Wide Web has made it possible to disseminate information over the Internet in an easy to use and flexible format. Thus, it played an important role in popularizing the use of the Internet.[34] Although the two terms are sometimes confused in popular use, World Wide Web it is not synonym with Internet.[35] The Web is a information space containing linked documents and other Resources, identified by their URIs.[36] It is implemented as client and server software, using Internet protocols as TCP / IP and HTTP.

Berners-Lee was Knight in 2004 by Queen Elizabeth second “services for the global development of the Internet”.[37][38] He never patented his invention.

Occupation[[[[To edit]

The World Wide Web functions as a application layer protocol which runs “on top” (figuratively) of the Internet, helping to make it more functional. The advent of mosaic The web browser helped make the web a lot more usable, including displaying images and moving images (Gifs)

The terms Internet and World Wide Web they are often used without much distinction. However, the two terms do not mean the same thing. The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer network. On the other hand, the World Wide Web is a global collection of documents and other Resources, linked by hyperlinks and URIs. Web resources are accessed using HTTP or HTTPS, which are application-level Internet protocols that use Internet transport protocols.[39]

Viewing a web page on the World Wide Web usually starts by typing the button URL page in a web browser or by following a hyperlink to that page or resource. The web browser starts a series of communication messages in the background to fetch and display the requested page. In the 1990s, the use of a browser to view web pages – and move from one page to another via hyperlinks – came to be known as ‘navigation’, ‘web browsing’ (after surf channel) or ‘browse the web’. The first studies of this new behavior investigated user patterns in the use of web browsers. One study, for example, found five user patterns: exploratory navigation, window navigation, evolved navigation, limited navigation and targeted navigation.[40]

The following example demonstrates how a web browser works when accessing a page at the URL http://www.example.org/home.html. The browser resolves the URL server name (www.example.org) on a Internet Protocol Address using the distributed globally Domain Name System (DNS). This search returns an IP address as 203.0.113.4 or 2001: db8: 2e :: 7334. The browser requests the feature by sending a HTTP Internet request to the computer at that address. It requests service from a specific TCP port number that is well known for the HTTP service, so that the receiving host can distinguish an HTTP request from other network protocols that may be listening. The HTTP protocol typically uses house number 80 and for the HTTPS protocol it usually uses house number 443. The content of the HTTP request can be as simple as two lines of text:

GET /home.html HTTP/1.1
Host: www.example.org

The computer that receives the HTTP request delivers it to the web server software that handles requests on port 80. If the web server can handle the request, it sends an HTTP response back to the browser, indicating success:

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

followed by the content of the requested page. Hypertext markup language (HTML) for a basic web page might look like this:

<html>
  <head>
    <title>www.Example.org – The World Wide Webtitle>
  head>
  <body>
    <p>The World Wide Web, abbreviated as WWW and commonly known ...p>
  body>
html>

The web browser analyzes HTML and interprets the markup (<title>, <p> for paragraph and others) that involves the words to format the text on the screen. Many webpages use HTML to refer to the URLs of other resources, such as images, other embedded media, scripts that affect page behavior and Cascading Style Sheets that affect the page layout. The browser makes additional HTTP requests to the web server for these others Internet media types. As it receives content from the web server, the browser progressively advances sues the page on the screen, as specified by your HTML and these additional features.

HTML[[[[To edit]

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language to create web pages and Web applications. With Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and Javascript, forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World Wide Web.[41]

Web browsers receive HTML documents from a web server or local storage and surrender documents on multimedia web pages. HTML describes the structure of a web page semantically and originally included tips for how the document would look.

HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages. With HTML constructs, images and other objects like interactive forms can be embedded in the rendered page. HTML provides a means of creating structured documents denoting structural semantics for texts such as titles, paragraphs, lists, Connections, quotes and other items. HTML elements are outlined by Tag, written using angle brackets. Tags like <img /> and <input /> directly insert the content on the page. Other tags like <p> wrap and provide information about the text of the document and can include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page.

HTML can incorporate programs written in a scripting language such as Javascript, which affects the behavior and content of web pages. The inclusion of CSS defines the appearance and layout of the content. The Consortium on the World Wide Web (W3C), maintainer of HTML and CSS standards, has encouraged the use of explicit CSS over HTML since 1997.[42]

Linking[[[[To edit]

Most web pages contain links to other related pages and perhaps downloadable files, source documents, definitions and other web resources. In the underlying HTML, a hyperlink looks like this:
<a href="http://www.example.org/home.html">www.Example.org Homepagea>

Graphical representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, showing hyperlinks

This collection of useful and related resources, interconnected by hypertext links, is called network of information. The Internet publication created what Tim Berners-Lee first called World Wide Web (in its original CamelCase, which was later discarded) in November 1990.[16]

The hyperlink structure of the WWW is described by webgraph: the web graph’s nodes correspond to the web pages (or URLs) that the borders point between them to the hyperlinks. Over time, many web resources pointed to by hyperlinks disappear, reallocate, or are replaced by different content. This makes hyperlinks obsolete, a phenomenon known in some circles as link rot, and the hyperlinks affected by it are often called dead links. The ephemeral nature of the Web has taken many efforts to archive websites. The Internet Archive, active since 1996, is the best known of these efforts.

WWW prefix[[[[To edit]

Many hostnames used for the World Wide Web start with www because of the longstanding practice of naming Internet hosts according to the services they provide. The hostname on one web server it’s frequent www, just as it can be ftp for one FTP serverand news or nntp for Usenet news server. These hostnames appear as DNS (Domain Name System) or subdomain names, as in www.example.com. The use of www it is not required by any technical or political standard and many sites do not use it; the first web server was nxoc01.cern.ch.[43] According to Paolo Palazzi,[44] who worked at CERN together with Tim Berners-Lee, the popular use of www how subdomain was accidental; the project page on the World Wide Web should be published on www.cern.ch while info.cern.ch should be the home page of CERN, however, DNS records have never been changed and the practice of attaching www for an institution’s website, the domain name was copied later. Many established sites still use the prefix or use other subdomain names, such as www2, safe or en for special purposes. Many of these web servers are configured so that the primary domain name (for example, example.com) and www subdomain (for example, www.example.com) refers to the same website; others require one form or another, or can map to different sites. Using a subdomain name is useful for load balancing incoming web traffic creating a CNAME record that points to a cluster of web servers. As currently, only one subdomain can be used in a CNAME, the same result cannot be achieved using the root of the simple domain.[45][[[[doubtful ]

When a user submits an incomplete domain name to a web browser in the input field of the address bar, some web browsers attempt to automatically add the prefix “www” to the beginning and possibly “.com”, “.org” and “.net” at the end, depending on what may be missing. For example, inserting ‘microsoft’ can be transformed into http://www.microsoft.com/ and ‘openoffice’ for http://www.openoffice.org. This feature started to appear in previous versions of fire Fox, when it still had the work title ‘Firebird’ in early 2003, from a previous practice in browsers like Lynx.[46][[[[unreliable source?] It is reported that Microsoft received a US patent for the same idea in 2008, but only for mobile devices.[47]

In English, www is generally read as double-u double-u double-u.[48] Some users pronounce it dub-dub-dub, particularly in New Zealand. Stephen Fry, in his podcast series “Podgrams”, pronounces wuh wuh wuh.[49] The English writer Douglas Adams once played The Independent on Sunday (1999): “The World Wide Web is the only thing that I know of, whose reduced form takes three times more time to say than what is abbreviated”.[50] In Mandarin Chinese, World Wide Web is commonly translated through a phonosomatic correspondence for wàn wéi wǎng (万维网), which satisfies www and literally means “myriad dimensional network”,[51][[[[best source needed] a translation that reflects the concept of design and the proliferation of the World Wide Web. Tim Berners-Lee’s web space states that World Wide Web it is officially written as three separate words, each with capital letters, without intervening hyphens.[52] The use of the www prefix has declined, especially when Web 2.0 Web applications sought to brand their domain names and make them easily pronounceable.[53]

While the Mobile web has grown in popularity, services like Gmail.with, Outlook.com, My space.with, Facebook.eats Twitter.com are mentioned more often without adding “www”. (or, in fact, “.com”) for the domain.

Schema specifiers[[[[To edit]

The schema specifiers http:// and https:// at the beginning of a web URI refer to Hypertext Transfer Protocol or Secure HTTP, respectively. They specify the communication protocol to be used for the request and response. The HTTP protocol is critical to the operation of the World Wide Web, and the encryption layer added in HTTPS is essential when browsers send or retrieve sensitive data, such as passwords or bank information. Web browsers generally automatically add http: // to user-entered URIs, if omitted.

Pages[[[[To edit]

A screen capture of a web page on Wikimedia Commons

AN web page (also written as web page) is a suitable document for the World Wide Web and web browsers. A web browser displays a web page on a monitor or mobile device.

The term web page generally refers to what is visible, but it can also refer to the content of the computer file itself, which is usually a text file containing hypertext written in HTML or a comparable markup language. Typical web pages provide hypertext to navigate to other web pages via hyperlinks, usually called Connections. Web browsers often need to access multiple web resource elements like reading style sheets, scriptsand images, while presenting each web page.

On a network, a web browser can retrieve a web page from a remote control. web server. The web server can restrict access to a private network, such as a corporate intranet. The web browser uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make such requests to the web server.

AN static web page is delivered exactly as stored, as web content on the web server file system. In contrast, a dynamic web page is generated by a web application, usually driven by server software. Dynamic web pages are used when each user may require completely different information, for example, banking sites, web email, etc.

Static page[[[[To edit]

AN static web page (sometimes called flat page / stationary page) it is a web page delivered to the user exactly as stored, in contrast to dynamic web pages that are generated by a web application.

Consequently, a static web page displays the same information for all users, from all contexts, subject to the modern features of a web server for Negotiate content type or document language in which these versions are available and the server is configured to do so.

Dynamic pages[[[[To edit]

Dynamic web page: sample server-side script (PHP and MySQL)

AN dynamic server web page it is a web page whose construction is controlled by a application server processing server-side scripts. In server-side scripts, parameters determine how the assembly of each new web page will be carried out, including setting up more processing on the client side.

AN dynamic client-side web page renders the web page using HTML script running in the browser while it loads. JavaScript and other scripting languages ​​determine how HTML on the received page is parsed in Document Object Model, or DOM, which represents the loaded webpage. The same client-side techniques can dynamically update or change the DOM in the same way.

A dynamic web page is reloaded by the user or by a computer program to change some variable content. The update information may come from the server or changes made to the DOM on that page. This may or may not truncate your browsing history or create a saved version to go back to, but a dynamic web page refresh using Ajax technologies will not create a page to go back to, nor will it truncate the web browsing history front of the displayed page. Using Ajax technologies at the end of the user stay a dynamic page managed as a single page in web browser while the real web content rendered on this page may vary. The Ajax engine is only in the browser requesting parts of your DOM, The DOM, for your client, of an application server.

DHTML is the generic term for technologies and methods used to create web pages that are not static web pages, although it has fallen into common use since the popularization of AJAX, a term that is now rarely used. Client-side scripting, server-side scripting or a combination of these contributes to the dynamic web experience in a browser.

Javascript it is a scripting language which was initially developed in 1995 by Brendan Eich, then Netscape, for use on web pages.[54] The standardized version is ECMAScript.[54] To make web pages more interactive, some web applications also use JavaScript techniques, such as Ajax (asynchronous JavaScript and XML) Client-side script it is delivered with the page that can make additional HTTP requests to the server, in response to user actions, such as mouse movements or clicks, or based on elapsed time. Server responses are used to modify the current page instead of creating a new page with each response; therefore, the server only needs to provide limited and incremental information. Multiple Ajax requests can be handled at the same time, and users can interact with the page while data is being retrieved. Web pages can also regularly voting the server to check if new information is available.[55]

Internet network location[[[[To edit]

AN Internet network location[56] is a collection of related web resources, including web pages, multimedia content, usually identified with a domain nameand published in at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, Google.eats amazon.com.

A website can be accessible through an audience internet protocol Network (IP), such as Internetor a private local network (LAN), referencing a standard resource locator (URL) that identifies the site.

Sites can have many functions and can be used in a variety of fashions; a website can be a personal website, a corporate website for a company, a government website, an organization website, etc. Sites are generally dedicated to a specific topic or goal, ranging from entertainment and social network to provide news and education. All publicly accessible sites collectively constitute the World Wide Web, while private sites, such as a company’s website for its employees, are usually part of a intranet.

Web pages, which are the building blocks of websites, are documents, usually composed of plain text interspersed with Hypertext Markup Language formatting instructions (HTML, XHTML) They can incorporate elements from other sites with due marking anchors. Web pages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), which can optionally employ encryption (Secure HTTP, HTTPS) to provide security and privacy to the user. The user application, usually a web browser, renders the content of the page according to the HTML markup instructions in a display terminal.

Hyperlink between web pages transmits to the reader the estrutura do site e orienta a navegação do site, que geralmente começa com um pagina inicial contendo um diretório do site conteúdo web. Alguns sites exigem registro do usuário ou inscrição para acessar o conteúdo. Exemplos de sites de assinatura incluem muitos sites de negócios, sites de notícias, jornal academico sites, sites de jogos, sites de compartilhamento de arquivos, quadros de mensagens, baseado na web o email, rede social sites, sites que fornecem em tempo real mercado de ações dados, bem como sites que oferecem vários outros serviços. Usuários finais pode acessar sites em vários dispositivos, incluindo Área de Trabalho and computadores portáteis, computadores tablet, smartphones and TVs inteligentes.

Browser[[[[editar]

UMA navegador da web (geralmente chamado de browser) é um Software agente de usuário para acessar informações na Internet. Para conectar-se a um site servidor e exibir suas páginas, o usuário precisa ter um programa de navegador da web. Este é o programa que o usuário executa para baixar, formatar e exibir uma página da web no computador do usuário.[57]

Além de permitir que os usuários encontrem, exibam e movam entre páginas da Web, um navegador da Web geralmente possui recursos como manter favoritos, histórico de gravação, gerenciar cookies (veja abaixo) e home pages e pode ter recursos para registrar senhas para acessar sites da Web .

Os navegadores mais populares são chrome, Raposa de fogo, Safári, Internet Explorerand Beira.

Servidor[[[[editar]

UMA servidor web It’s software servidorou hardware dedicado à execução do referido software, que pode atender às solicitações dos clientes da World Wide Web. Um servidor da web pode, em geral, conter um ou mais sites. Um servidor da Web processa solicitações de rede recebidas HTTP e vários outros protocolos relacionados.

A principal função de um servidor web é armazenar, processar e entregar paginas web for clientes.[58] A comunicação entre cliente e servidor ocorre usando o Protocolo de transferência de hipertexto (HTTP). As páginas entregues são mais frequentemente Documentos HTML, que pode incluir imagens, folhas de estilo and scripts além do conteúdo do texto.

Vários servidores da web podem ser usados ​​para um site de alto tráfego; aqui, Dell servidores são instalados juntos, sendo usados ​​para o Fundação Wikimedia.

UMA agente de usuário, geralmente um navegador da web or rastreador da web, inicia a comunicação fazendo uma solicitação para um recurso específico usando HTTP e o servidor responde com o conteúdo desse recurso ou com um mensagem de erro se não for possível. O recurso geralmente é um arquivo real no servidor armazenamento secundário, mas esse não é necessariamente o caso e depende de como o servidor da web está implementado.

Embora a função principal seja fornecer conteúdo, uma implementação completa do HTTP também inclui maneiras de receber conteúdo dos clientes. Esse recurso é usado para enviar formulários da web, Incluindo Enviando de arquivos.

Muitos servidores web genéricos também suportam script do lado do servidor usando Páginas do servidor ativo (ASP), PHP (Pré-processador de hipertexto) ou outro linguagens de script. Isso significa que o comportamento do servidor da web pode ser script em arquivos separados, enquanto o software do servidor real permanece inalterado. Usually, this function is used to generate HTML documents dynamically (“on-the-fly”) as opposed to returning static documents. The former is primarily used for retrieving or modifying information from databases. The latter is typically much faster and more easily cached but cannot deliver dynamic content.

Web servers can also frequently be found embedded in devices such as printers, routers, webcams and serving only a local network. The web server may then be used as a part of a system for monitoring or administering the device in question. This usually means that no additional software has to be installed on the client computer since only a web browser is required (which now is included with most operating systems)

Cookie[[[[edit]

An HTTP cookie (also called web cookie, Internet cookie, browser cookie, or simply cookie) is a small piece of data sent from a website and stored on the user’s computer by the user’s web browser while the user is browsing. Cookies were designed to be a reliable mechanism for websites to remember stateful information (such as items added in the shopping cart in an online store) or to record the user’s browsing activity (including clicking particular buttons, logging in, or recording which pages were visited in the past). They can also be used to remember arbitrary pieces of information that the user previously entered into form fields such as names, addresses, passwords, and credit card numbers.

Cookies perform essential functions in the modern web. Perhaps most importantly, authentication cookies are the most common method used by web servers to know whether the user is logged in or not, and which account they are logged in with. Without such a mechanism, the site would not know whether to send a page containing sensitive information, or require the user to authenticate themselves by logging in. The security of an authentication cookie generally depends on the security of the issuing website and the user’s web browser, and on whether the cookie data is encrypted. Security vulnerabilities may allow a cookie’s data to be read by a hacker, used to gain access to user data, or used to gain access (with the user’s credentials) to the website to which the cookie belongs (see cross-site scripting and cross-site request forgery for examples).[59]

Tracking cookies, and especially third-party tracking cookies, are commonly used as ways to compile long-term records of individuals’ browsing histories – a potential privacy concern that prompted European[60] and U.S. lawmakers to take action in 2011.[61][62] European law requires that all websites targeting União Européia member states gain “informed consent” from users before storing non-essential cookies on their device.

Google Project Zero researcher Jann Horn describes ways cookies can be read by intermediaries, gostar Wi-Fi hotspot providers. He recommends to use the browser in incognito mode in such circumstances.[63]

Search engine[[[[edit]

The results of a search for the term “lunar eclipse” in a web-based image search engine

UMA web search engine or Internet search engine is a software system that is designed to carry out web search (Internet search), which means to search the World Wide Web in a systematic way for particular information specified in a web search query. The search results are generally presented in a line of results, often referred to as search engine results pages (SERPs). The information may be a mix of web pages, images, videos, infographics, articles, research papers and other types of files. Some search engines also mine data available in databases or open directories. Unlike web directories, which are maintained only by human editors, search engines also maintain real-time information by running an algorithm on a web crawler.
Internet content that is not capable of being searched by a web search engine is generally described as the deep web.

Deep web[[[[edit]

The deep web,[64] invisible web,[65] or hidden web[66] are parts of the World Wide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard web search engines. The opposite term to the deep web is the surface web, which is accessible to anyone using the Internet.[67] Computer scientist Michael K. Bergman is credited with coining the term deep web in 2001 as a search indexing term.[68]

The content of the deep web is hidden behind HTTP forms,[69][70] and includes many very common uses such as web mail, online banking, and services that users must pay for, and which is protected by a paywall, such as video on demand, some online magazines and newspapers, among others.

The content of the deep web can be located and accessed by a direct URL or IP address, and may require a password or other security access past the public website page.

Caching[[[[edit]

UMA web cache is a server computer located either on the public Internet, or within an enterprise that stores recently accessed web pages to improve response time for users when the same content is requested within a certain time after the original request. Most web browsers also implement a browser cache by writing recently obtained data to a local data storage device. HTTP requests by a browser may ask only for data that has changed since the last access. Web pages and resources may contain expiration information to control caching to secure sensitive data, such as in online banking, or to facilitate frequently updated sites, such as news media. Even sites with highly dynamic content may permit basic resources to be refreshed only occasionally. Web site designers find it worthwhile to collate resources such as CSS data and JavaScript into a few site-wide files so that they can be cached efficiently. Enterprise firewalls often cache Web resources requested by one user for the benefit of many users. Alguns search engines store cached content of frequently accessed websites.

Safety[[[[edit]

For criminals, the Web has become a venue to spread malware and engage in a range of cybercrimes, including (but not limited to) identity theft, fraud, espionage and intelligence gathering.[71] Web-based vulnerabilities now outnumber traditional computer security concerns,[72][73] and as measured by Google, about one in ten web pages may contain malicious code.[74] Most web-based attacks take place on legitimate websites, and most, as measured by Sophos, are hosted in the United States, China and Russia.[75] The most common of all malware ameaças It’s SQL injection attacks against websites.[76] Through HTML and URIs, the Web was vulnerable to attacks like cross-site scripting (XSS) that came with the introduction of JavaScript[77] and were exacerbated to some degree by Web 2.0 and Ajax web design that favours the use of scripts.[78] Today by one estimate, 70% of all websites are open to XSS attacks on their users.[79] Phishing is another common threat to the Web. In February 2013, RSA (the security division of EMC) estimated the global losses from phishing at $1.5 billion in 2012.[80] Two of the well-known phishing methods are Covert Redirect and Open Redirect.

Proposed solutions vary. Large security companies like McAfee already design governance and compliance suites to meet post-9/11 regulations,[81] and some, like Finjan have recommended active real-time inspection of programming code and all content regardless of its source.[71] Some have argued that for enterprises to see Web security as a business opportunity rather than a cost centre,[82] while others call for “ubiquitous, always-on digital rights management” enforced in the infrastructure to replace the hundreds of companies that secure data and networks.[83] Jonathan Zittrain has said users sharing responsibility for computing safety is far preferable to locking down the Internet.[84]

Privacy[[[[edit]

Every time a client requests a web page, the server can identify the request’s IP address and usually logs it. Also, unless set not to do so, most web browsers record requested web pages in a viewable história feature, and usually cache much of the content locally. Unless the server-browser communication uses HTTPS encryption, web requests and responses travel in plain text across the Internet and can be viewed, recorded, and cached by intermediate systems. Another way to hide personally identifiable information is by using a VPN. A VPN encrypts online traffic and masks original IP address lowering the chance of user identification. When a web page asks for, and the user supplies, personally identifiable information—such as their real name, address, e-mail address, etc.—web-based entities can associate current web traffic with that individual. If the website uses HTTP cookies, username and password authentication, or other tracking techniques, it can relate other web visits, before and after, to the identifiable information provided. In this way it is possible for a web-based organisation to develop and build a profile of the individual people who use its site or sites. It may be able to build a record for an individual that includes information about their leisure activities, their shopping interests, their profession, and other aspects of their demographic profile. These profiles are obviously of potential interest to marketeers, advertisers and others. Depending on the website’s terms and conditions and the local laws that apply information from these profiles may be sold, shared, or passed to other organisations without the user being informed. For many ordinary people, this means little more than some unexpected e-mails in their in-box or some uncannily relevant advertising on a future web page. For others, it can mean that time spent indulging an unusual interest can result in a deluge of further targeted marketing that may be unwelcome. Law enforcement, counter terrorism, and espionage agencies can also identify, target and track individuals based on their interests or proclivities on the Web.

Social networking sites try to get users to use their real names, interests, and locations, rather than pseudonyms, as their executives believe that this makes the social networking experience more engaging for users. On the other hand, uploaded photographs or unguarded statements can be identified to an individual, who may regret this exposure. Employers, schools, parents, and other relatives may be influenced by aspects of social networking profiles, such as text posts or digital photos, that the posting individual did not intend for these audiences. On-line bullies may make use of personal information to harass or stalk Comercial. Modern social networking websites allow fine grained control of the privacy settings for each individual posting, but these can be complex and not easy to find or use, especially for beginners.[85] Photographs and videos posted onto websites have caused particular problems, as they can add a person’s face to an on-line profile. With modern and potential facial recognition technology, it may then be possible to relate that face with other, previously anonymous, images, events and scenarios that have been imaged elsewhere. Due to image caching, mirroring and copying, it is difficult to remove an image from the World Wide Web.

Standards[[[[edit]

Web standards include many interdependent standards and specifications, some of which govern aspects of the Internet, not just the World Wide Web. Even when not web-focused, such standards directly or indirectly affect the development and administration of web sites and web services. Considerations include the interoperability, acessibilidade and usability of web pages and web sites.

Web standards, in the broader sense, consist of the following:

Web standards are not fixed sets of rules, but are a constantly evolving set of finalized technical specifications of web technologies.[92] Web standards are developed by standards organizations—groups of interested and often competing parties chartered with the task of standardization—not technologies developed and declared to be a standard by a single individual or company. It is crucial to distinguish those specifications that are under development from the ones that already reached the final development status (in case of W3C specifications, the highest maturity level).

Accessibility[[[[edit]

There are methods for accessing the Web in alternative mediums and formats to facilitate use by individuals with disabilities. These disabilities may be visual, auditory, physical, speech-related, cognitive, neurological, or some combination. Accessibility features also help people with temporary disabilities, like a broken arm, or ageing users as their abilities change.[93] The Web receives information as well as providing information and interacting with society. The World Wide Web Consortium claims that it is essential that the Web be accessible, so it can provide equal access and equal opportunity to people with disabilities.[94] Tim Berners-Lee once noted, “The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.”[93] Many countries regulate web accessibility as a requirement for websites.[95] International co-operation in the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative led to simple guidelines that web content authors as well as software developers can use to make the Web accessible to persons who may or may not be using assistive technology.[93][96]

Internationalisation[[[[edit]

The W3C Internationalisation Activity assures that web technology works in all languages, scripts, and cultures.[97] Beginning in 2004 or 2005, Unicode gained ground and eventually in December 2007 surpassed both ASCII and Western European as the Web’s most frequently used character encoding.[98] Originally RFC 3986 allowed resources to be identified by URI in a subset of US-ASCII. RFC 3987 allows more characters—any character in the Universal Character Set—and now a resource can be identified by IRI in any language.[99]

See too[[[[edit]

References[[[[edit]

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Further reading[[[[edit]

  • Berners-Lee, Tim; Bray, Tim; Connolly, Dan; Cotton, Paul; Fielding, Roy; Jeckle, Mario; Lilley, Chris; Mendelsohn, Noah; Orchard, David; Walsh, Norman; Williams, Stuart (15 December 2004). “Architecture of the World Wide Web, Volume One”. Version 20041215. W3C.
  • Berners-Lee, Tim (August 1996). “The World Wide Web: Past, Present and Future”.
  • Fielding, R.; Gettys, J.; Mogul, J.; Frystyk, H.; Masinter, L.; Leach, P.; Berners-Lee, T. (June 1999). “Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1”. Request For Comments 2616. Information Sciences Institute.
  • Niels Brügger, ed. Web History (2010) 362 pages; Historical perspective on the World Wide Web, including issues of culture, content, and preservation.
  • Polo, Luciano (2003). “World Wide Web Technology Architecture: A Conceptual Analysis”. New Devices.
  • Skau, H.O. (March 1990). “The World Wide Web and Health Information”. New Devices.

External links[[[[edit]


Paula Fonseca